Basic Dope Sheet Operation

(Updated 06/10/2021)

This section describes basic operations on the dope sheet.
For more information on the Graph Editor, please refer to the “Graph Editor” page.

Basic operation

Keyframe Insertion

Animation is created by inserting keys on the timeline, and there are several ways to insert keys.
This section describes how to insert keyframes on a dope sheet.


Method 1:
You can insert a key by holding down [Ctrl] and [left-clicking] on the frame of the property you wish to insert.
The cursor at this time will display a “+” as shown in the figure below.


Method 2:
Select the frame at the position where you want to insert the key, and move the “Live2D Parameters” slider or enter a numerical value.
You can insert a key for that parameter value.

Again, keys are inserted one at a time, but when parameters are linked, each key is inserted as soon as the slider is moved.


Hold [Shift] while editing Live2D parameters to enter fine values.
This function is useful when fine adjustments are required.


Method 3:
You can insert a batch key into any element present in the frame.
Inserting a key into a frame of a track or a frame in the [Properties] group by [Ctrl] + [Click] as in “Method 1” will apply the key to all keys of the properties to which it belongs at once.

The figure below shows a batch key inserted into a character's track or Properties group.

(1) is a batch key inserted into all elements in the character's track (parameters, part display, placement & opacity, lip-sync).
(2) is a batch key inserted only in the Properties group of the parameter.

When inserting keyframes in a batch, insert keys at the positions that suit your purpose.

Right-click on the [Properties] group in [Live2D Parameters] -> [Insert Keyframe]
to insert keys for all properties at once. It can be inserted without affecting the keys already set.


Method 4:
Keyframes can be inserted by dragging a rotational deformer on the animation workspace.

  1. Switching the edit level to “1” displays the rotation deformer in the animation view.
    * If the part is locked on the model, the rotation deformer will not be displayed.
  2. Drag the tip of the rotation deformer at the position where you want to insert the keyframe, and the associated parameters will move and the keyframe will be inserted.
    (The rotation deformer can be operated by changing to the rotation icon when the cursor is hovered over the tip.)
    * The key is not displayed immediately after the rotation deformer is moved. After moving it, click anywhere on the [Timeline] palette or move the indicator.


Method 5:
Keyframes can be inserted by dragging a deformation path on the animation workspace.

  1. Switching the edit level to “2” displays the deformation path in the animation view.
  2. Drag the control point of the deformation path at the position where you want to insert the keyframe to deform the ArtMesh and insert the keyframe.


This is not a problem if it is for video, but if it is intended to be embedded in a game project, etc.,
to prevent unintended movement, it is recommended to insert a keyframe at frame 0.

By right-clicking on the [Properties] group in [Live2D Parameters] -> [Insert Keyframe]
a key can be inserted for all properties.

Depending on the environment in which it is incorporated, it may only be compatible with properties for which keyframes are set, so
discuss with the developer.

In the case of Bezier curves, as in the Graph Editor, handles are automatically created while preserving the curve shape.


Delete Keyframes

Left-click on a keyframe while holding down [Ctrl] to delete the key.
The cursor at this time will display “-”.

Keyframes can also be deleted by selecting them and then pressing [Back Space] or [Delete].

As with Insert, deleting a keyframe in a track frame or a frame in the [Properties] group allows
you to delete the keys of the frames of the properties to which they belong in a batch.


Copy and paste and cut keyframes

Select a keyframe and use the following shortcut keys to execute it.

[Ctrl] + [C] Copy Keyframes
[Ctrl] + [X] Cut Keyframes
[Ctrl] + [V] Paste Keyframes

These operations can also be performed from the menu bar or from a right-click menu.

Note that the copy& paste performed in this operation will paste the copied keyframe into the same parameter.
If you want to paste a copied keyframe into a specific parameter, see the next section.


Copy & paste of keyframes (paste into other parameters)

Normally, when you perform a copy& paste, the copied keyframes are pasted into the same parameter.
To paste a copied keyframe into a specific parameter, do the following.

Here, as an example, we paste the XYZ of the face into the XYZ of the body.
First, select the keyframe to be copied.

Next, select the same number of parameters that you copied at the position you wish to paste.

Since we have just copied a three-parameter keyframe, select a three-parameter keyframe as the destination as well.

From the right-click menu, execute [Paste Keyframes to Selected Rows].

The confirmation dialog box shown below will appear.

Select the processing to be performed when pasting and click [OK].

Adjust values by ratio when the range of applicability is different If the range of the pasted area is different from that of the copied area, adjust the value by ratio.
Match out-of-range values to maximum and minimum values If the value of the source exceeds the range of the destination,
match the number that is out of range to the maximum and minimum values.
Apply values as they are (deprecated) Apply the value as it is.
If the source and destination ranges are different,
this may result in unintended behavior.

The keyframes for the face parameters were pasted into the keyframes for the body parameters.

If the selected parameters are too large or too small, the dialog shown below will appear and paste cannot be executed.
In this case, select the correct paste destination again.



Copy & Paste Tracks

By selecting a track, you can copy& paste the model, voice, background image, etc.

Copy&paste of a track can also be performed on another scene.

It cannot be pasted into other animation data (can3).


Moving keyframes

You can change the position by dragging the selected keyframe.
Multiple selections allow you to move multiple keyframes at the same time.

To select a range, you can also [Shift]+click on the dope sheet.


In the curve editing limit of the form animation, if the key is moved, adjust the value to maintain a base point value (the same value as the frame value) that reflects 100% of the deformation.


Adjustment of keyframe spacing

Select a range of frames and click the [Adjust Spacing] button.


When the [Spacing Adjustment] dialog box opens, enter a spacing value directly or by dragging left or right on the input box, then click the [Apply] button.


The spacing is adjusted starting from the beginning of the selected range.



Reverse Keyframes

Inverts the keyframe around the reference value.
For example, if this function is executed for an animation that tilts the head to the right (angle Z: 0 -> 30 -> 0) as shown below, the keyframe will be flipped around [Reference value: 0], resulting in animation that tilts the head to the left (angle Z: 0 -> -30 -> 0).

First, select the range of keyframes to be inverted.

Next, from the right-click menu, select [Reverse Keyframes].

The keyframes are inverted, resulting in the animation shown below.

The appearance on the dopesheet does not change, but if you switch to the graph editor to check, you will see that the graph is inverted.

Graph before reversal Graph after inversion

Inversion is performed based on the reference value of the parameter.
Therefore, depending on the reference value setting, unintended results may result.
Reference values can be viewed and changed in the model workspace from the [Modeling] menu -> [Parameter] -> [Parameter Settings].

Please refer to the “About Parameters” page for information on parameter settings.


Expanding and reducing the timeline

Use [Alt] + [Mouse Wheel] to zoom in and out on the timeline.
The center of scaling is the cursor position.

The graph editor can be scaled in the same way.



Scroll through the timeline

Horizontal scrolling of the timeline can be operated with the slider at the bottom or by [Shift] + [mouse wheel], or by [middle mouse click (click on the wheel)] + [drag] to scroll horizontally and vertically at the same time.
It is useful in combination with the timeline zooming in and out performed by [Alt] + [Mouse Wheel].



Separate parameters by folder

When creating models in the model workspace, you can separate the parameters of the model placed in the animation data by folder.
This makes it easier to manage models with numerous parameters.

Folders and folder open/close states set as parameters on the model workspace are reflected in the animation workspace parameters.
The open/close state of the parameter folder of the animation scene reflects the open/close state on the model data.
Any changes made to the open/closed state of a parameter on the animation workspace will not be saved in the animation data.


To close a folder, click the expand button to the left of each folder.

The figure below shows all folders closed.
When the folder is closed, the keyframes contained in the folder will be displayed on the timeline, just as they are displayed on the model track, etc.
Keyframes can be inserted, moved, deleted, and edited even when the folder is closed.
If a folder is closed and a keyframe is moved, the edit will be applied to all keyframes contained in the folder.



Parameter concatenation

Click on the [link button] next to the parameter name to link it to the parameter below.

This function is useful when you want to link the left and right eyeball movements or the X and Y of the face.


Show/hide models and images

To temporarily hide a model or image, click on the [Show/Hide icon] to the right of the track name.

The [Show/Hide icon] will change to a “.” and the track will be temporarily hidden.

You can switch continuously by dragging the [Show/Hide icon].

Hidden elements are not exported.
Before exporting, check to make sure that necessary elements are not hidden and that unnecessary elements are not displayed.


Locking models and images

To temporarily lock a model or image, click the [lock icon] to the right of the track name.

The [lock icon] will change to a “key” and the track will be temporarily locked.

You can switch continuously by dragging the [lock icon].


Solo display function

This function allows you to solo only the target track on the timeline palette.

By pressing the [solo button] added to the right of the track's display button (eyeball button), only that track can be displayed alone.
When a group track is displayed solo, only tracks within the group track are displayed. Solo display is also valid for movies and other output.


Event Setup

“Events” can be used in applications and animations to perform event processing, such as processing events in response to the arrival of a certain frame.
See the “User Data and Events” page for more details.


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